Urinalysis, Complete With Microscopic Examination

Description

This is a comprehensive test and involves chemical, visual and microscope examination of urine sample. This test detects the presence of blood or body cells (epithelial cells), cell fragments, cysts or crystals in the urine sample which can be associated to number of urinary tract infections, renal diseases, lever problem, metabolic conditions and diabetes. This test is also part of routine checkup exam of patients admitted or discharged from hospital. This test is also part of normal checkups during pregnancies. The symptoms that are associated with this test are: painful urination, blood in urine, abdominal and back pain.

The urinalysis complete test checks not only the color as well as appearance of the urine, but it also checks the pH as well as the specific gravity. In addition to checking for the presence of blood, cells, and crystals, it also checks if there are glucose, ketones, urobilinogen, and bilirubin in the urine sample.

How to Prepare for a Urinalysis Complete Test

No fasting is required for routine urinalysis test, and this lab test can be done at any time of the day. However, there are some types of urinalysis tests that require you to catch the first stream in the morning because it is much more concentrated. Also, some hormones are at its highest during the early morning hours. An example of this is the urine pregnancy test.

For urinalysis complete test, you will be given a clean container where you will catch the urine stream. Usually, an ounce or two of the specimen is enough. After you filled the container, you need to send it back to the lab within an hour. Of note, this same process is also done for urinalysis drug test, but this test checks for the presence of illegal drugs instead.

You could also do a clean-catch urine sample, which is a bit different than routine urinalysis test. Here, you need to wash the genital area prior to taking a urine sample and then catch the urine midstream, discarding the first and last parts of the stream. Washing the genital area is important since bacteria, secretions, and cells could contaminate the specimen and affect the results.

What the Results Mean

Normal values for urinalysis complete test are as follows:

  • The color is usually yellow to deep amber. Diseases, medications, and food you eat could affect the color.

  • Turbidity or clarity is usually clear. A cloudy urine could mean an infection.

  • The pH should be between 4.5 and 8. Abnormality in the pH level could mean problems with the urinary tract or the kidney.

  • The specific gravity should be between 1.005 and 1.025. Higher than this value means that your body is not getting enough water.

  • There should be no blood, ketones, nitrites, leukocyte esterase, bilirubin, bacteria, and yeast in the specimen. Abnormalities in these levels mean infection and problems in the liver, kidney, or urinary tract.

  • Glucose level should be below 130 mg/d. An abnormally high glucose level could mean diabetes.

  • Urobilirubin level should be below 1 mg/dL. Abnormal level could mean liver problem.

  • Protein should be lower than 150 mg/d. Abnormal level could mean kidney problem.

  • Blood should be less than 3 RBCs, RBC should be less than 2 RBC/hpf, WBC should be less than 5 WBC/hpf. High levels of these could mean kidney, bladder, blood problems.

  • Casts and crystals should be negative. Its presence could mean kidney problems.

Common Urinalysis Complete Test Questions

  • Can this test be done in my doctor’s clinic?

    Yes. Some offices can analyze urine samples if they have the machine, but for any abnormality, the sample may be sent to a laboratory for further analysis.

  • Can I use home test kits?

    There are testing kits that can analyze the urine’s chemical composition, but this doesn’t show complete and accurate results.


LabEspy recommends Walk-In Lab, Econo Labs, Request A Test for this test.

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