Overview of Lupus Anticoagulant
Lupus anticoagulant (LA) is characterized by the presence of abnormal immunoglobulins in the body that target the phospholipids and other membrane associated proteins. Lupus anticoagulant is a prothrombotic agent and favors the formation of clots in the body. Individuals suffering from lupus anticoagulant are likely to develop unwanted and abnormal clots in the blood vessels. The abnormal antibodies produced in lupus anticoagulant cause the membrane phospholipids and other proteins increase the aggregation and adhesion of platelets. This abnormal aggregation of platelets lead to formation of clot that can block or clog the blood vessels. Lupus anticoagulant is also known as lupus antibody (LA) or lupus inhibitors. About 2-4% of population of USA have been diagnosed with lupus anticoagulant.
Causes and Risk Factors of Lupus Anticoagulant
Lupus anticoagulants are mostly IgM and IgG antibodies that target phospholipids and other membrane bound proteins. Individuals suffering from certain autoimmune disorder such as systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) are highly likely (around 20-45% probability) to develop lupus anticoagulants. Use of certain drugs such as isoniazid, quinidine, and Dilantin and ACE inhibitors are considered to be at risk of developing LA. Individuals suffering from HIV infection are likely to develop lupus anticoagulant at certain stage in life. Increasing age is also considered as a risk factor for development of lupus anticoagulant disorder can individuals above 50 years of are considered as high risk individuals.
Signs and Symptoms of Lupus Anticoagulant
Lupus anticoagulant is manifested as recurrent thrombosis, migraine, spontaneous miscarriages and stroke. In certain cases of lupus anticoagulant, unexplained and excessive bleeding (both internal and external) is observed. Pulmonary thrombosis, deep vein thrombosis and cerebral thrombosis may be indicative of lupus anticoagulant disorder. LA can lead to different complications during pregnancy, such as placental disruption, retarded growth of fetus and stillbirth.