Overview of Kidney Stone
Kidney stone is characterized by presence of hard deposits, stones in the kidney or urinary tract. It is also termed as nephrolithiasis or renal colic. The stones are made of acids salts and mineral. Kidney stone is a relatively common disorder of kidneys that can affect 1:20 individuals. The severity of kidney stone disorder is dependent on the location, size and effect of the stone. Small stones can easily be passed through urine by drinking plenty of water. While larger stones that may block the urinary tract (ureter or urethra) and can lead to infection (urinary tract infection UTI) are removed through medication and surgery. Recurrence of kidney stones can be avoided by adoption healthy life style and increased fluid intake.
Causes and Risk Factors of Kidney Stone
The main reason of formation of kidney stones in dehydration. Not taking enough fluids or severe and recurrent diarrhea and vomiting can lead to dehydration. The presence of waste products in blood can form crystals and get deposited in the kidneys leading to formation of kidney stones. High levels of uric acid, oxalate and calcium can lead to formation of kidney stones. Most common type of kidney stone are comprised of calcium oxalate. Another form of kidney stone known as struvite stones is formed as a result of urinary tract infection. Certain genetic factors can also lead to the formation of uric acid stones and cysteine stones are formed as a result of a hereditary disorder that can increase amount of certain amino acids in the urine.
Signs and Symptoms of Kidney Stone
The main symptoms of presence of kidney stones include nausea, vomiting, painful urination, pain in lower pain that varies in intensity, pain in groin that originates and spread in wave, severe pain in side and back, red or brown urine, frequent and persistent need to urinate, foul smelling urine, fever, chills in case of UTI.