Overview of Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroid is a disease caused by the decrease in the production of thyroid by the thyroid gland. Thyroid gland is present in the front of neck and it produce thyroid hormone which is transferred through blood to other parts of the body. The main function of thyroid hormone is to regulate the cell metabolism. Cells metabolize food and produce energy which body use to perform different functions. So, the patient with hypothyroidism have slow metabolism.
Causes and Risk Factors of Hypothyroidism
The main cause of deactivate thyroid gland is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis which is an autoimmune disease. In response of thyroiditis which is an inflammation of thyroid gland, the body immune system produce antibodies which attack the thyroid gland and result in decrease in production of thyroid hormone. The other reason of medical treatment of the thyroid gland such as radiation therapy of neck area during cancer treatment can damage the part or complete thyroid gland. Radioactive iodine treatment which is given to patient with overactive thyroid gland can result in affecting the thyroid gland partially or completely. Surgery of thyroid gland which can lead to complete or partial removal of gland. The partial removal of thyroid gland can be enough to produce thyroid but with the passage of time it cannot fulfill the need body requirement for thyroid and can lead to hypothyroidism. The other reason can be insufficient intake of iodine in the food.
Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
There are several Signs and Symptoms which can help in diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Few patients cannot have any symptoms and the disease can remain unnoticed. While other patients can have set of symptoms and symptoms severity can vary from one patient to the other depends on the time span of effected thyroid gland, patient with longer period of deactivate thyroid gland can have symptoms such as, fatigue, weakness, depression, constipation, dry hair, pale skin, weight gain, memory loss, abnormal menstrual cycle, and muscle cramp.