Overview of Cyst (pancreatic)
Ovarian cyst is a fluid filled sac or capsule like structure present in or on ovaries. If an ovarian follicle grows larger than 2cm it becomes a cyst. Ovarian follicles vary in size and are usually benign. Most cysts are functional in nature and resolve without treatment while some cysts form from abnormal cell growth and are cancerous. These cysts can develop in females at any stage of life, from the neonatal period to postmenopause. Most ovarian cysts, however, occur during infancy and adolescence, which are hormonally active periods of development. Different types of ovarian follicles include follicular cysts, luteal ovarian cysts, dermoid cysts and cystadenoma. Pancreas is a vital digestive organ located in upper abdomen. It secrets enzymes to help in digestion and hormones to control metabolism. Sometimes, sac-like pockets of fluids can from on or in the pancreas, known as pancreatic cysts. Pancreatic cysts are lined by layer of special sells that secrete fluids into the cysts. They range in size from several millimeters to several centimeters and can be benign or cancerous. Pancreatic cysts can be of different type based on their location and fluid enclosed. Some common pancreatic cysts are serous cystadenoma, mucinous cystadenomas, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and solid pseudopapillary neoplasm.
Causes and Risk Factors of Cyst (pancreatic)
Follicular cyst develops when follicular egg is not released or follicle does not shed its fluid and shrink after releasing egg. The follicle then swells with fluid and form a cyst. These cysts are resolved within weeks. Luteal ovarian cysts forms when corpus luteum is filled with blood. Mostly, it goes away in few months, however it may sometimes rupture and cause sudden pain and internal bleeding. Dermoid cells arise form germ cells and are present at birth. These cysts can contain hair, teeth and skin glands and needs to be removed surgically. Cystadenomas grow from the cells lining the ovary; some are filled with thick, mucous substance while other contain watery liquid. These are attached to ovaries via stalk and have potential to grow considerably. Besides this endometriosis and polycystic ovarian syndrome increases the risk of ovarian cysts. Other risk factors include infertility treatment, hypothyroidism, advancing age, family history, and history of breast cancer, BRCA gene mutation and cigarette smoking. Serous cystadenomas contain thin fluid and are rarely cancerous. But they can become large enough to cause abdominal pain and feeling of fullness. Most pancreatic cysts are of serous type and are usually found in women older than 50 years. Mucinous cystadenomas are filled with mucin, and are located in the body and tail of pancreas. Most of these cysts have tendency to become cancerous and are mostly present in middle aged women. IPMN are the most common type of pancreatic cysts. These are connected with pancreatic duct and contain large number of pancreatic enzymes in their fluid. The small cysts are non-cancerous, however, the cysts of larger than 3cm size can become cancerous. These are usually present in middle aged men. Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm contain both solid and cystic component and can become cancerous.
Signs and Symptoms of Cyst (pancreatic)
Signs and symptoms of ovarian cysts include irregular and painful menstruation, pelvic and abdominal pain, pain during sex, pain while passing stool, pressure on the bowels, bloating, swelling or heaviness of abdomen, nausea, indigestion and heartburn and pressure on rectum or bladder and breast tenderness. Complications can occur in the form of torsion, rupture and cancer. Cyst growing on ovary stem may cause twisting of stem, blocking blood supply to cyst and causing severe pain in lower abdomen. Rupturing of cyst may cause severe pain, infection and bleeding. The symptoms of pancreatic cysts depend on their size and location. Small (<2 cm) cysts are usually asymptomatic. Large pancreatic cysts can cause abdominal pain and back pain presumably by exerting pressure on the surrounding tissues and nerves. Obstruction of bile duct due to cyst in the head of pancreas results in retention of bilirubin in blood which causes jaundice (yellowing of skin and sclera with darkening of urine). Other symptoms can include vomiting and abdominal bloating.