Overview of Carcinoma (lung)
Carcinoma of the lung is characterized by presence of cancerous cells in the lung. It is considered as a most deadly cancer that affects men and women all over the world. Around 50,000 people in UK are diagnosed with lung cancer each year. Smoking as well as passive smoking is the leading cause of lung carcinoma. There are two types of lung cancer, depending on the type of cells in the lung that have become malignant. They include small cell lung cancers (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The treatment depends on the stage at which cancer is detected, but like most cancers, the symptoms of lung cancer appear when major damage to the lungs has been done. Cessation of smoking has improved the treatment and survival rate of patients with lung cancer.
Causes and Risk Factors of Carcinoma (lung)
Small cell lung cancer is an aggressive and mostly fatal type of lung cancer. It arises in peribronchial space and spreads to bronchial mucosa and then on later stages it can affect bones, lymph nodes and brain. The predominant cause of SCLC (as well as NSCLC) is tobacco smoking. About 90% cases of individuals with lung cancer have a history of smoking. Only 10% lung cancers occur due to other reasons. Individuals working at uranium mines (exposure to radon gas from uranium) are considered to be at high risk of developing SCLC. Non-small cell lung cancer is more prevalent then SCLC. Genetic factors also serve as underlying cause of lung cancer and individuals who carry certain mutated genes are considered to be at high risk of developing lung cancer. Air pollution and exposure to asbestos are also considered to be at high risk of developing lung cancer. Age is also a major factor that increase the risk of lung cancer.
Signs and Symptoms of Carcinoma (lung)
The common symptoms of lung cancer include persistent shortness of breath, cough, blood in cough, unexplained weight loss, fatigue, weakness, pain in chest while coughing or breathing, clubbing of finger nails, wheezing and recurrent lung infections.